Monday, February 10, 2020

Discuss the role of histopathology in the diagnosis and prognosis of Essay

Discuss the role of histopathology in the diagnosis and prognosis of adenocarcinoma of the colon - Essay Example According to Burns (2011) adenocarcinoma of the colon is the cancer that affect the gastro intestines especially its mucosa. Development of adenocarcinoma is associated with development of polyps. Polyps are the growth that are found on the inner side of the colon and protrude into it. These structures form when epithelial cells that line the colon, change to abnormal. This process of change in the epithelial cells is known as mutation. In any living organism, the cells are programmed to generate, multiply, mature and die in a normal way (Willet, 2005, 29). However, in the case of the polyps, there is inconsistency with the designed program of the cells because polyps are permanent. Their existent also makes the death of other cells impossible and hence there is an accumulation of cells in the colon. This has a negative effect on the functioning of the body because it renders conducive supply of oxygen and consumption of nutrients to the cells. This then leads to accumulation of imma ture cells and consequent development of more polyps. If not treated, the polyps develop into the tumor in the inner tissues of the colon. Some of the symptoms of this cancer include; rectal bleeding, constipation, anemia, angina amongst others. Histopathology of the tumor According to Greaves (2011, 29) histopathology of the adenocarcinoma is achieved through taking a biopsy from the colon tissues and carrying out various procedures, which help to differentiate between normal tissues from cancerous one. Fixation of the cells is the first step during specimen processing. Formaldehyde is used to fix the specimen that will undergo pathology study. The purpose of this chemical is to preserve the cells by the process known as irreversible cross-linking of proteins. In this process, the amino groups are cross-linked in proteins through the formation of the methylene bridges. The aim of this process is to retain the integrity of the cells. It ensures that the whole process of specimen pre paration does not distort a normal cell. As such it ensures that at the end of the test, a normal cell is clearly differentiated from abnormal one. However, the disadvantage of fixation through formalin is that, it may degrade RNA, DNA and other components of the cells. Hence it requires for the recommended protocols to be followed when carrying out such process. According to Jones and Morson (2003) an alternative way of fixing specimens is by using suitable freezing medium such as nitrogen. This method is mostly used to preserve the tissues. It is used in conjunction with staining methods such as antibody linked immunoflorescence staining. This process is important in diagnosis and prognosis because when the integrity f a specimen retained, an accurate conclusion is drawn at the end of the examination of the specimen. This then will show whether the cells are cancerous or not, which will later help in forecasting the course of the disease. After fixation, dehydration and clearing o f the cells follow. The importance of this step is to ensure that cells are dry hence easing the process of specimen sectioning. It eases the process sectioning the specimen for easy visualization through the microscope. In histopathology, this process is important because when cells are cut into the recommended thinness, the various infections and abnormalities can be identified accurately when the specimen section is viewed under microscope (Keggar, 2006, 237). This helps

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